Scorpions and Centipedeshttp://pmo.umext.maine.edu/ipddl/ipddl.htm


Questions 26-35

 

Scorpion: What is it?

see more info about the scorpion here

 

Where are they found?

net doctor

Are they dangerous?

 

What happens when scorpions sting?

Minor Cases

Serious Cases

This information can be found at Medline

When do people get stung?

How can I avoid being stung?

When in a scorpion-populated area you should:

Information from museums.org

Centipede: What is it?

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Google images

Where are they found?

Are they dangerous?

nearctica.com

How to avoid stings:

wemjournal.org

 

What happens when centipedes sting?

See http://www.wemjournal.org/wmsonline/ bottom of page for images of actual sting

Minor Cases

medline.com and merck.com

More serious cases

    Treatment for Scorpions and Centipedes:

Medline and ehow.com

Do's and Don'ts of sting treatment

    Do's:

  1. Put on medical gloves, precautionary measure

  2. Clean the wound with antiseptic cleanser

  3. Apply a cold compress (preferably ice wrapped in a washcloth) to the site of the sting

  4. After 10 minutes remove compress for 10 minutes

  5. Repeat the process of on for 10 minutes and off for 10 minutes (for as long as pain persists)

  6. Immobilize the affected area

  7. Keep victim calm and still

  8. Administer an antihistamine such as Benadryl to reduce swelling and itching. (OPTIONAL)

  9. Look for signs and symptoms of a serious case

  10. Try to identify the type of scorpion

  11. If it is a serious case (including heavy sweating, difficulty breathing and swallowing) get victim to a hospital ASAP

  12. Monitor cardiac and respiratory functions and treat as required (ABC's)

  13. Anti-venom must only be administered in the case of severe systemic envenomation...and ONLY by a doctor

  14. Envenomation of the eyes must be flushed with water or any bland fluid (milk, urine).

Medline, museums.org and ehow.com

    Don'ts:

 museums.org

Treatment Fact and Fiction: Does this just seem like a good idea?

Fiction:     Slash the site of sting to let the venom flow out.
Fact:    Sounds effective but it is not. DO NOT slash yourself. You put yourself at risk of secondary infection by bacteria. This can be way worse than the effect of the toxin. Also blood loss will probably worsen your condition

Fiction: Amputate the limb.
Fact: Only works in movies. Actual effectiveness is very questionable. Unless you can find a huge chopper in the first 30 seconds and decisively amputate your limb, it is futile. You are more likely die from blood loss than any known scorpion stings.

Fiction: Drink alcohol
Fact: The alcohol which is a barbiturate does help ease the pain and anxiety in sufficient quantity. However, alcohol speeds up blood flow and probably hastens the venom spread. Also alcohol needs to be detoxified by the liver and this competes with detoxification of venom. This may further increase the long biological half life of scorpion toxin. Other than that alcohol which is a depressant may increase the effect of some toxins. Finally, alcohol may mask any symptoms that exist, preventing proper treatment.
 

Fiction: Tie a tourniquet
Fact:  Recent studies shows that the tourniquet applied at the proximal site when released for short interval increase the blood flow many fold and this means that the venom spread may instead be hasten.  Applied for too long, you basically lose the limb being tied due to lack of blood to it. Applied at wrong site cause more harm than good and even when applied properly, it is not very useful.
 

Fiction: Give strong narcotics like morphine
Fact: NO. Morphine and opium has been used to 'treat' scorpion stings. They are powerful pain relievers which reduce the intense pain caused by scorpion stings.  Do not use them even for symptomatic relief. They also cause respiratory depression and this increases the effect of neurotoxin. Probably many deaths each year are directly or indirectly caused by this treatment rather than the scorpion venom.


Fiction: Drink lots and lots of water
Fact: Some people claim that drinking water helps flush the system of the venom. Drinking water probably does temporarily dilute the venom but it increases the load on the kidney. Kidney is pivotal to elimination and some metabolism of toxin so increasing its load may not be such a great idea.
 

Fiction: Suck the venom out.
Fact: A rather dangerous act for the one attempting. If it's successful, the venom may enter the rescuer through ulcers in mouth, esophagus, stomach or even intestine. Many may not be aware of ulcers in stomach and esophagus. This results in two victims instead of one and the rescuer would be of more use calling for help. In any case, it is quite unlikely to suck out much, if any, venom this way. More probably, one will be just sucking another's blood if done strongly enough. This also increases the risk of infection as mouth has one of the most bacteria in the body.
 

Fiction: Use the hemolymph of the scorpion
Fact: Scorpions are known to be quite resistant to their own venom. Some kill the scorpion and apply the scorpion's fluid into the site of sting thinking that it will neutralize the venom. On its own, the hemolymph (or bluish blood) of the scorpion is known to be slightly toxic in the test with mice and rabbits. However, the hemolymph seems to have slight beneficial effect when applied to envenomed individuals in a controlled environment. The danger of this treatment is the increased chance of developing allergy as the hemolymph is also a foreign substance.

Questions 26-35

26.           Which of the following  statements about sting treatment is appropriate?

a.          Slash the site of the sting and giving an antihistamine

b.         Tie a tourniquet above the sting site

c.          Suck the venom out

d.         Applying ice and bandaging the wound

 

27.           According to the linked picture of a centipede, where does its claw come from?

a.          The first thoracic segment

b.         The last thoracic segment

c.          The fourth pair of legs

d.         It has no claw

 

28.           Which of the following is NOT a proper treatment method of a scorpion or centipede sting?

a.          Apply a cold compress

b.         Keep victim still

c.          Alternate cold compress and hot compress

d.         Monitor ABC’s

 

29.           Suppose you are in the back yard with your mom and your younger brother, and both are stung by a scorpion. What do you do first?

a.          Give your mother a Benadryl

b.         Give your brother a Benadryl

c.          Apply a cold compress to your mother’s sting

d.         Disinfect your brother’s sting

 

30.           Which of these is NOT a symptom of a serious reaction to a scorpion sting?

a.          Red subdural streaks radiating from the site

b.         Muscular spasms

c.          Double vision

d.         Irregular heart beat

 

31.           Mark answer A

 

32.           Which is a normal reaction to a centipede sting?

a.          Extreme dizziness

b.         Swelling around the bite

c.          Rapid pulse

d.         Difficulty breathing

 

33.           Of the following situations, who is at the most risk of death?

a.          Five year old stung by a scorpion in the Arizona desert

b.         10 year old stung by a centipede

c.          Teenager stung by a large centipede

d.         30 year old stung by a scorpion in her home in Texas

 

34.           What is a common precaution for both scorpion and centipede stings?

a.          Wear protective footwear

b.         Careful when lifting rocks and logs

c.          Do not sleep directly on ground when camping

d.         Always carry a flashlight

 

35.           Which of the following is a treatment only to be provided by a doctor?

a.          Giving victim alcohol

b.         Disinfecting and cleaning the wound

c.          Providing an antihistamine

d.         Administering anti-venom